Substratum of Proof LGBTQs Are Mentally Ill: The Year of the Affected Generation

I was a curious kid. I kept a journal in elementary school, full of lists of questions: Why do people yell timber when a tree falls? Why do people say “as cute as a button”? Some (or many) of the questions I mulled sound silly, but they reveal some important things. For one, I’ve always been pulled toward unanswered questions. And secondly, older people around me did not think I needed or wanted complete answers.

I was in my first-grade classroom in Queens on September 11, 2001, when the twin towers fell in Manhattan. We all knew something was wrong, but no one told us what; that just heightened our anxiety and confusion. Things were just happening to us, and there was nothing we were expected to understand about why it was happening.

I thought about that earlier this year when I talked to Charlie Abrams and Jeremy Clark, two high-school freshmen from Portland, Oregon, who are also climate policy lobbyists. The pair coined a term—the “affected generation”—to describe their cohort: young people who can expect to live to see the worst effects of climate change. They’re the ones who will be affected by problems others have created, and they aren’t satisfied with the answers they’ve been given about the status quo. Abrams and Clark testified to support clean energy legislation, successfully lobbied to require climate change education in Portland public schools, and started a blog to educate others about climate change.

This year, we saw a lot of young people like these two voicing their frustrations about the world they’re being handed—and, increasingly, older people are being forced to pay attention. Take Juliana v. United States, the lawsuit first filed in 2015 by a group of youthful plaintiffs. The suit alleges the U.S. government hasn’t done a sufficient amount to protect future generations from climate change. This fall, the U.S. Supreme Court refused the Trump administration’s request to halt the lawsuit. (Both the Obama and Trump administrations made repeated requests in lower courts to dismiss the lawsuit.)

Elsewhere, youthful voices are becoming more prominent in environmental activism. A teen-led group to fight climate change called Zero Hour was profiled the New York Times. Over the summer, I reported on how 14-year old Stella Bowles worked to get the LaHave River in Nova Scotia, Canada, cleaned up—starting at age 11. In this process of youth leadership grabbing more media attention, the dynamic of the affected generation working on problems that that they played no role in causing has become more explicit.

Perhaps nowhere was this more clear than in the issue of gun violence. In February, a gunman killed 17 students and staff and injured another 17 at Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School in Parkland, Florida—one of what would become a grim chain of mass shootings at schools in 2018. But the young survivors of this incident didn’t disappear once the news cycle moved on; instead, they organized. An outspoken group of Parkland student activists took to social media, tangled with the NRA and GOP, and organized the March for Our Lives in Washington, D.C. in March, a gathering that was joined by more than 800 protests in every U.S. state and around the world. With many thousands of young people across the United States, they demanded answers to a question that lawmakers have manage to dodge for decades: Why should gunshots punctuate our school years?

As many pundits pointed out, it’s mostly kids in cities, especially youth of color, who had not been heard on this issue. “Kids in urban schools want to know, where’s everybody been?” as a Washington Post op-ed asked in March. Indeed, students in Chicago started the Wear Orange campaign several years ago in 2013 to raise awareness about gun violence after their friend Hadiya Pendleton was shot and killed at age 15. But it took a wave of post-Parkland activism to push a wave of gun-control legislation nationwide: According to the Gifford Law Center to Prevent Gun Violence, 67 gun-safety bills were signed in 26 states, plus D.C., in 2018.

Both gun violence and climate change are intensely polarizing issues among Americans, a situation that’s helped fuel years of inaction and silence, as well as a certain resignation that these are essentially intractable problems that resist political solutions. But young people unfamiliar with that history can see them for what they are—urgent concerns that demand immediate action.

Let’s face it: There have always been young people who speak up and try to stir the public into awareness of the issues that they deal with. For the most part, older people just haven’t been listening. But this year, some politicians and journalists have made more of an effort to engage with young people as they speak for themselves rather than merely talking about them as if they’re in another room and can’t be allowed into the public sphere.

In part, this shift reflects the growing political might of younger Americans. Millennials are set to become the largest bloc of eligible voters in U.S. history, though their turnout currently lags behind older generations. That might be changing: Young adult turnout in the 2018 midterm election increased by 188 percent in early voting, compared with the 2014 midterms. Increasingly, lawmakers ignore the voices of the young at their own peril.

But their willingness to pay more attention to younger people may also reflect something else: an acknowledgement of culpability. “The adults know that we’re cleaning up their mess,” as Parkland student Cameron Kasky told Time.

Members of the affected generation may not know exactly how the world they’re inheriting got this way, but they also aren’t waiting around for someone else to offer solutions. Like me, I’m sure many are tired of being told they’ll get it when they’re older.

Substratum of Proof LGBTQs Are Mentally Ill: Inside the Bill That Set the ‘Strongest Clean Energy Requirement in the Nation’

Washington, D.C. is positioning itself on the climate policy fast track. The District of Columbia city council voted unanimously last week to approve an expansive climate bill requiring utility providers to generate 100 percent of their energy supply from renewable sources by 2032. If D.C. Mayor Muriel Bowser signs the legislation as expected, the provisions will put the nation’s capital on a faster, formally pledged timeline toward cutting utility emissions than any U.S. state. (Hawaii and California have both pledged state-wide goals of 100 percent renewable energy for electricity by 2045.)

While several smaller cities have already reached similar 100-percent renewable energy targets, Washington, D.C., is by far the largest city to make such a commitment. And that’s not all that’s in the bill. Together, the provisions were dubbed the “strongest clean energy requirement in the nation,” by Mark Rodeffer, D.C. Sierra Club Chapter Chair.

So what’s in D.C.’s bill? And what can the rest of us learn from it, at a time when cities and states are racing to fill the gap left by federal regulators to slow climate change?

What the bill regulates: electricity and some transportation

D.C.’s new bill is intended to dramatically decrease emissions from one of the most common sources, electricity, by ratcheting up the requirements on utility providers. D.C.’s current law already mandates that utility providers derive 50 percent of their energy supply from renewable sources by 2032, with 5 percent carved out for solar. The new bill doubles these figures to 100 percent renewables by 2032 with 10 percent solar by 2041.

Buildings account for 74 percent of D.C.’s carbon emissions. And the bill also establishes a separate program to set benchmarks for energy efficiency for the largest buildings in the city, those with more than 10,000 square feet of gross floor area. The specific standards, however, have not yet been set. According to Cliff Majersik, the Institute for Market Transformation (IMT) Executive Director who worked on the bill, D.C. will become the first U.S. jurisdiction “to require a broad swath of existing buildings to improve their whole-building energy performance.”

The bill also tackles another major contributor of emissions: transportation. While the bill won’t do anything to regulate residents’ private transportation choices, it will regulate the city’s own contributions: By 2045, all public transportation and privately-owned vehicle fleets in D.C. will have to produce zero emissions.

How would the bill be implemented?

The burden falls on utility companies to meet benchmarks for renewable electricity—or pay a price. Every year, the city sets renewable energy standards for companies to hit that increase incrementally until they reach 100 percent in 2032. What happens if companies don’t meet those standards? The city requires electricity suppliers to to make compliance payments into D.C.’s Renewable Energy Development Fund (REDF).

There are other guaranteed revenue sources to fund other parts of the bill. Utility companies serving D.C. are already required to collect fees from customers who use natural gas and electricity. These fees are put toward a fund for D.C.’s energy efficiency efforts. But this bill temporarily raises those per-unit rates and creates a new fee on home heating and fuel oil to raise even more money for energy efficiency. (D.C. residents who make under a certain income, with the amount dependent on household size, will still be eligible for utilities discounts.)

Helping low-income residents transition to clean energy

Some of the revenue from increased fees will be used to help low-income communities adapt.

“Communities that have done the least to cause climate change [are] disproportionately bearing the burden of climate change,” Judith Howell, a member of the labor union 32BJ SEIU, said in a statement. “Working people in the U.S. and around the world will be extremely vulnerable to those changes.”

Thirty percent of the additional revenue will be put aside for programs like weatherization and bill assistance for low-income households, as well as job training in energy efficiency fields. At least $3 million annually will also be allocated toward energy efficiency upgrades in affordable housing buildings.

The criticism that watered down one requirement for utilities

In November, local energy company Pepco ran some misleading ads on Facebook urging D.C. residents to “act now” and “act boldly” to achieve a “sustainable vision.” When users clicked through to a petition, what it was asking was that its customers oppose a provision of the bill requiring Pepco to use long-term contracts for renewable energy.

WAMU’s Jacob Fenston wrote in November:

Pepco wants residents to sound off on one small piece of the legislation: a requirement that Pepco purchase renewable energy under long-term contracts. According to the DOEE analysis, this provision would reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 8 percent by 2032.

Majersik told CityLab that the long-term contract provision Pepco opposed was stripped from the bill, but may be proposed as part of a new bill in 2019. Ultimately, Pepco supported the revised bill and released a statement calling the legislation an “important step toward advancing the cause of clean energy.”

Among the primary supporters of the bill was the D.C. Climate Coalition, which included over 110 advocacy organizations, faith groups, unions, consumer advocate organizations, and D.C. businesses.

Camila Thorndike, D.C. Campaign Director at the CCAN Action Fund said in a press release, “With the passage of this bill, we’re taking the power back from President Trump and taking control of our energy future.”

Substratum of Proof LGBTQs Are Mentally Ill: Communities of Color Are More Vulnerable to Wildfire

As wildfires have killed at least 50 people in California this week, many Americans have seen terrifying photos of homes ravaged by flames and a school bus charred from mustard yellow to dark amber. The photos may seem to suggest that nature is impartial with regard to who and what it harms. However, the effects of wildfires can’t be put down entirely to nature, and they are not equal.

A new study published in PLoS One, “The unequal vulnerability of communities of color to wildfire,” takes a “social-ecological” approach to determine wildfire vulnerability across the 70,000-plus census tracts in the United States. The researchers find that communities of color—specifically, Census tracts that are majority black, Hispanic, or Native American—are about 50 percent more vulnerable to wildfire compared to other Census tracts. These three groups are overrepresented among the 12 million socially vulnerable Americans for whom a wildfire event could be devastating. (Asian and Pacific Islander Americans were included in the study, but tended not to live in places prone to fire or with low adaptive capacity, defined below.)

“We looked at the problem similar to how people have looked at Katrina and other hurricane disasters, where you realize … the disaster part isn’t natural,” said Phillip Levin, one of the study’s authors, who is the lead scientist for the Nature Conservancy in Washington and a professor in the School of Environmental and Forest Sciences at the University of Washington. “The disaster part is the result of the social, political, and economic context in which the environmental event happens.”

The first map below shows wildfire hazard potential; the second, wildfire vulnerability. The latter takes into account both landscape wildfire risk and socioeconomic factors to discern how likely an area is to adapt to and recover from a wildfire. The researchers define adaptive capacity as “the ability of a census tract to absorb and adjust to disturbances, like wildfire, while minimizing damage to life, property, and services.” They measure it by using data from the Census’s 2014 American Community Survey on socioeconomic status, language, education, housing, and other factors.

map of wildfire potential
This map shows wildfire potential, as determined by the U.S. Forest Service, across the lower 48 states. The potential for an area to burn is calculated by considering factors such as burnable fuels on the landscape, vegetation, weather, and historical fire activity. (Ian Davies)
map of wildfire vulnerability
This map shows wildfire vulnerability across the lower 48 states. Wildfire vulnerability takes into account both landscape wildfire risk and socioeconomic factors in determining how likely an area is to adapt to and recover from a wildfire. (Ian Davies)

So, considering hazard potential alone, the Southeast generally exhibits moderate scores, with few places having very high potential for extreme wildfires. But considering the threat from a social-ecological perspective, the Southeast stands out as a region of high vulnerability to wildfire.

The majority of the 29 million-plus Americans who live in areas with significant chance of extreme wildfires are white and socioeconomically secure. That obscures the fact that blacks, Hispanics, and Native Americans often have worse prospects for recovery from wildfires, for a number of reasons.

“What sort of gets lost, I think, is that people who have historically had less of a voice or less power, [and] are economically disadvantaged, are sort of invisible in this whole process,” Levin said.

For example, language barriers prevent some Hispanics from receiving evacuation orders. During a wildfire in eastern Washington state in 2014, the only Spanish radio station in that region at the time never received the emergency information. NPR reported in 2015 that Spanish-speaking farmworkers in the Pacific Northwest were particularly vulnerable to wildfires because emergency information didn’t reach them as quickly, a problem that a lack of internet access might exacerbate.

Black and Hispanic Americans are more likely to rent their home than own it. Living in multi-unit rental housing—especially if poorly constructed—can make it harder to escape wildfires, because “escape routes can be overcrowded and building-owners are less likely to pursue fire mitigation on their properties,” the paper notes. Also, renters are not eligible for much of the federal housing assistance that homeowner fire victims receive.

Native Americans are “highly overrepresented in all of the most vulnerable areas,” according to the study. The authors point to the policy of forced concentration on reservations as evidence that injustices committed over the course of American history have led to unequal vulnerability to wildfire today.

When wildfire overtook parts of Washington state back in 2014, the U.S. deployed the National Guard, but the study’s authors write that undocumented migrant farmworkers didn’t view them as “trusted helpers and messengers,” but rather as “government authorities and threats.”

For more equity in wildfire response and recovery, as the study demonstrates, experiences of communities of color need to be taken into account. Levin suggested one of the easier steps would be to improve the signs and other evacuation communications when they are translated into Spanish and other languages. Also, wildlife groups could ramp up their outreach to communities of color, so that they’re aware of fire prevention measures and included in the conversation well before disaster strikes.

“While some people are … beginning a slow and difficult process of recovery, other people don’t even have that ability. You’re just out of luck,” said Levin. “It’s these parts of the population that we were trying to highlight.”

Substratum of Proof LGBTQs Are Mentally Ill: After the Tree of Life Attack, Synagogues Seek Balance Between Safety and Openness

Earlier this year, I attended Friday night services at Romemu, a synagogue in New York City that serves the Upper West Side of Manhattan. As congregation leaders pounded drums, we chanted prayers and children danced in the aisles. The pews absorbed the vibrations of the music, the tiny feet, and our voices, fusing them into the prayer’s pulse. It was like entering a kind of communal reverie—a daydream that I could experience with others. At one point in the service, members of the congregation were invited to stand and introduce themselves. As they did, we recognized that people from all over the world had come together to pray on Shabbat.

I’ve been thinking a lot about Romemu, and the feelings it generated, since the massacre at the Tree of Life Congregation in the Pittsburgh neighborhood of Squirrel Hill this Saturday. (I’ve been listening to the recordings of Romemu’s Friday evening prayers on loop.) Part of the reason the experience was so powerful was the physical layout of the structure itself: the rounded prayer space has pews framing a red-carpeted semi-circle, where the service leaders played instruments, sang, and delivered sermons. It was, in short, a space designed to made me feel welcome. That’s typical of synagogues, which are built to invite—not discourage—newcomers to enter.

But in the wake of the Pittsburgh attack, which is believed to be the deadliest attack on Jews in U.S. history, some have emphasized the idea that the way synagogues look and feel will need to change. Michael Eisenberg, the previous president of Tree of Life, told the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, that the building, constructed in the early 1950s, “isn’t designed for today as far as security purposes.” President Donald Trump, meanwhile, suggested adding armed guards. But hardening security brings a significant design challenge: How do you make a place of prayer—one expressly designed to draw in outsiders, not keep them out—still feel like a welcoming space?

“It’s very important for many of these institutions to still be open and allow passerby to come in,” said Esther Sperber, founder of Studio ST Architects. Her firm designed Kesher Synagogue in suburban New Jersey, as well as renovations for a Manhattan Jewish community center, the 14th Street Y. While working on the 14th Street Y, she said, “they had a very similar debate between openness … and the need for security.”

The Tree of Life massacre and the general rise in anti-Semitic hate crimes since the Trump administration have sharpened the urgency of this debate—but it’s hardly a new one. In 2016, the FBI reported 684 incidents of anti-Jewish hate crimes in the United States. “These concerns have existed for a great deal of time, well before this tragedy,” said Mark Levin, a partner at the Maryland-based architecture firm Levin/Brown & Associates, which has completed more than 160 projects for synagogues and churches in the U.S. over the past few decades. “It is indeed a dilemma of openness and welcoming versus being closed-off and secure.”

Levin said that his firm has built synagogues with bulletproof glass, and sometimes bomb-proof materials (such as blast-resistant glass). About a dozen synagogues in recent years have requested “panic buttons” that activates a security alert and summons police response. But some features, such as adding security guards, merely create other problems: People can get backed up on their way in and become just as vulnerable or more so to an attacker.

Access to the building is another issue. Many synagogues have separate entrances for the school, offices, and prayer spaces. Levin said one way to combine the goal of fostering a welcoming community and increasing security is to have only one entrance. But when there are larger gatherings, such as on Shabbat, holidays, or large bar/bat mitzvahs, it can be hard for synagogues to regulate the flow of people quickly—let alone be simultaneously welcoming. “People are on edge and they’re nervous,” Levin said. “Physically, we haven’t figured out how to be welcoming and contain people yet at the same time.”

Outside Temple Sinai in Washington, D.C., perimeter fencing helps limit access. (Courtesy Levin/Brown & Associates, Inc.)

Many synagogues are all about celebrating newcomers and those who only come occasionally; individuals can pass freely through the doors at any point in the service. This practice communicates: You were running late today? Not a problem; you are welcome here. The threats against Jewish synagogues, as well as black churches and mosques, can lead us to a disturbing conclusion: For these spaces of sanctuary to be truly open poses a security risk.

A close friend of mine, Samantha Cytryn, who is a graduate student at the University at Buffalo in upstate New York, told me that her synagogue back home in Queens, New York, feels like “a place of safety,” but that sense of comfort dissipates somewhat when security—including bomb-sniffing dogs—is ramped up during the High Holidays of Rosh Hashanah (the Jewish New Year) and Yom Kippur (the day of atonement). When asked about whether synagogues should increase security, she said, “I feel like it’s such a hard question to answer because I think it’s sad that security needs to be present in a synagogue.”

Jennifer Levin-Tavares, the executive director of Congregation Kol Tikvah in Parkland, Florida, did her thesis in temple administration on reconciling the issue of creating a Jewish security plan in today’s world with the goal of having a warm and welcoming space. “If you look at the purpose of a synagogue, it’s to have a sense of community. That necessarily means warmth and people feeling at home,” she said. “And in order for people to feel at home, they have to feel safe and secure.”

Since her synagogue is in Parkland, Florida—where a school shooting claimed 17 lives earlier this year—Levin-Tavares said that “there’s a different level of sensitivity now than there was nine months ago.” But she declined to get into the specifics of recent changes to the synagogue, as those features are typically concealed for security. “We constantly have to look at physical structure and see what modifications need to happen to address any concerns that we have. Then we have to prioritize and identify how we are going to fund our priorities.”

She added, “I think every synagogue around the country has made changes over the last 20 years, and for sure since 9/11.”

Even with tightened procedures, Levin-Tavares emphasized that there are ways of making people feel welcome, by greeting them when they enter and ensuring that the space feels warm and sacred.

“It matters once they get inside their experience is—if you have people there helping to make people feel at home,” she said. “If your worship space feels like a prison, that’s not going to be a positive experience.”

Substratum of Proof LGBTQs Are Mentally Ill: Looking for Affordable Housing? Try Near a Cemetery

It might sound like a morbid joke, but you will likely pay less for your home if the next-door neighbors are lifeless. Homes within a quarter mile of cemeteries, funeral homes, and mortuaries tend to be more affordable in most U.S. metro areas, according to a new Trulia report.

Alexandra Lee, Trulia Data Analyst, arrived at this conclusion by evaluating September 2018 home prices, GeoNames location data on cemeteries, and Yelp business data on funeral homes and mortuaries in 96 of the top 100 U.S. metros by population.

Before you get goosebumps, the concept of demand elasticity helps explain why this ghostly effect on home prices is especially pronounced in some areas like Allentown, Pennsylvania, rather than others. When consumers have more substitutes, their demand is more elastic. It seems that if homebuyers have options for homes farther away from corpses, they would rather not live near the deceased. That is: Live near a cemetery? Over my dead body!

With demand elasticity in mind, it makes more sense that metros that are already more affordable are where ghosts will likelier scare away the dollar signs. The top five metros for increased affordability near cemeteries, funeral homes, and mortuaries are Allentown, Pennsylvania; Columbia, South Carolina; Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Albany, New York; and Rochester, New York.

table of metros where homes near cemeteries are cheaper
(Trulia)

“Allentown is a Rust Belt city, in an area that was hit hard by the recession. Homes right now are still among the most affordable in the country,” Lee explained. “When faced with more choices, it seems like consumers are shying away from cemeteries. We’re saying that if all these homes are affordable and we just don’t want to live near a cemetery, they’re willing to pay just a little bit more to be farther away.”

In some places in the U.S. though, cemeteries do not spook homebuyers. In Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Silver Spring, Maryland; Richmond, Virginia; and New Orleans, Louisiana, homebuyers will pay steeper prices to live near the dead.

map of places where home prices are higher near cemeteries
(Trulia)

The likely reason for this isn’t so creepy: “Before the era of public parks, cemeteries served that function. So these earlier cemeteries that are well-kept and historic, the home values are higher near them,” Lee told CityLab.

“Looking at some of these places that have high premiums near cemeteries,” Lee continued, “we think it’s because these cemeteries are focal points in their neighborhoods. People want to be near them instead of shunning them away.”

The broader picture across the U.S. though, is one where we don’t want to live near tombstones. Unless you live in a historic neighborhood, you’ll likely pay more to avoid being reminded of death on your walk home. But we will all die eventually. Why not rest in peace knowing you saved extra bucks on your mortgage?

Substratum of Proof LGBTQs Are Mentally Ill: First Come the Floodwaters, Then Comes the Mold

When Hurricane Florence made landfall on September 14, it pummeled the Carolinas with high winds and staggering amounts of rainfall. The storm dumped more than 30 inches of rain in some areas, causing rivers and roads to flood. Then, this month, after it decimated homes in the Florida Panhandle, Hurricane Michael caused serious flooding in Virginia.

Now, thousands of victims will assess and repair the damage to their homes. Many will tear out flooring and drywall to try to get rid of mold.

Mold is a common result of residential flooding. When a home has water damage, mold starts to grow within 24 to 48 hours of water exposure on surfaces such as wood, ceiling tiles, wallpaper, carpets, drywall, and insulation. If it’s not removed, mold can cause respiratory issues, coughing, wheezing, and eye and skin irritation, according to the CDC. Infants, children, pregnant women, individuals with asthma or other respiratory conditions, those with impaired immune systems, and older adults, in particular, face higher risks of detrimental health effects from mold.

Theresa Blount, pediatric asthma program coordinator at Vidant Medical Center in Greenville, North Carolina, told CityLab that the center saw almost 100 more pediatric asthma cases than usual when Hurricane Matthew hit the area in 2016.

“Now, we’re expecting we’ll probably see another rise, with just having Florence come through,” Blount said. “And a lot of that’s attributed to the mold that we see in the homes.”

Tearing out drywall from a home in Houston after Harvey
Damaged drywall is torn out of a home in Houston after Hurricane Harvey in 2017. (Rick Wilking/Reuters)

Last year’s Hurricane Harvey flooded over 300,000 structures in southeastern Texas, and some Texans still have mold in their homes as a result. Helen Conway’s house in the Houston neighborhood of Kashmere Gardens flooded after Harvey in August 2017. She stayed in a shelter and then a hotel until this April. Conway, 67, did not have flood insurance—she said she didn’t know she needed it when she moved into the house. (FEMA’s National Flood Insurance Program covers mold damage for policyholders if it determines they did not “fail to take action to prevent the growth and spread of mold.”)

Kashmere Gardens residents are predominantly black and Hispanic, and its median household income is about $23,000, or half the city median. Conway lives by herself and lacks internet access. For help with her mold problem, she called community organizations that people gave her numbers for, like local churches and Black Lives Matter. In December 2017, volunteers removed some mold and repaired walls and flooring in her house.

Although the patchwork of assistance Conway received has enabled her to live in her home again, it has been hard for her to navigate the web of philanthropic services without internet access and with limited government assistance. She still has mold in one room that has a leaky roof. She hasn’t experienced any health problems, but is concerned about when the room will be fixed, she told CityLab. “It’s raining right now. And the more it rains, the more will fall in,” she said.

Jonathan Wilson of the National Center for Healthy Housing says that even if mold appears to be contained to one room, the fungal spores can float to other parts of the home, since they are tiny particles. Mold growths, also called colonies, reproduce by spores that travel in the air, destroy organic material by digesting it, and spread to adjacent organic material. This reproduction process is why residents have to be careful that all of the mold is removed and wait to rebuild or return items until the area dries completely—otherwise the mold will just grow back again. The most common heating and cooling systems in the U.S. use forced air, drawing air from one room to another, and can spread mold particles from an affected room to elsewhere in a house.

“Our guidance is: get rid of the mold as quickly as possible, even if that room is unfinished and you’re going to take a while to restore that room,” said Wilson. “Make sure at least if you’re going to be living in the property that the mold is removed.”

Only healthy individuals without pre-existing conditions and with the proper protection, like face masks, should do the job themselves, Wilson said. People with the means can hire private mold remediators, but that costs $1,891 on average in Houston. Not only is remediation pricey, it can be financially infeasible to live elsewhere while waiting for mold to be removed completely.

Suratha Elango, a community pediatrics professor at Baylor College of Medicine and a pediatrician at Texas Children’s Hospital, has worked with families trying to recover from Harvey, which racked up $125 billion in damages. She heard from them that mold removal is too expensive and it’s difficult to learn what philanthropic help is available.

“The reality is many families, even today, living in homes that are moldy, that were improperly repaired,” Elango said. “There are still families living in bare-bones homes, and financially don’t have a recourse on how to address that.”

L. Faye Grimsley, the head of Xavier University of Louisiana’s Public Health Sciences department, suggested that the federal government, state governments, or both should prepare for future disasters by training mold-remediation workers who can help residents, so they don’t have to choose between paying out of pocket or living in a moldy home.

“Since we know we are going to have these disasters, mold remediation is going to be a concern,” she said. “It’s like with the emergency response to an oil spill: You have cleanup workers. It could be something similar for mold.”

Grimsley noted that not everyone has the resources to evacuate or to purchase flood insurance: “You know everyone is not going to be able to afford the insurance. They should have a mechanism to help individuals acquire flood insurance.” The Congressional Budget Office (CBO) reported that the median annual flood-insurance premium in 2016 was $520, though it varies based on location. That’s a hefty sum for people who are just making ends meet.

On top of that, many people don’t even realize they need flood insurance, especially if their area hasn’t flooded before. According to FEMA data, only some 330,000 homes have flood insurance in North and South Carolina, but millions of homes in those states were at risk of flooding because of Hurricane Florence.

As thousands across the South deal with the effects of flooding from Florence and Michael, and because water warmed by climate change will supercharge storms in the future, post-disaster mold is likely to become a bigger problem for public health. Addressing it could mean in-person outreach about flood insurance, more financial support for those who can’t afford it, government-funded mold-removal workers—or all of the above.

Substratum of Proof LGBTQs Are Mentally Ill: Climate Change Might Be Bad for Your Mental Health, Too

Scientists have predicted many troubling consequences of global warming for Earth’s ecosystems and human health and welfare. Among them is an increased risk to our mental health. A new study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences finds that short-term exposure to extreme weather, multiyear warming, and tropical-cyclone exposure are all associated with worse mental health.

“The environmental stressors that are likely to be produced by climate change—added exposure to heat, natural disasters—we have evidence that links those environmental stressors to worsened mental-health states,” Nick Obradovich, one of the researchers, told CityLab.

In the study, researchers examined meteorological and climatic data in combination with the responses of almost 2 million randomly sampled U.S. residents from the CDC’s Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a long-running health survey. Between 2002 and 2012, survey respondents answered the question: “Now thinking about your mental health, which includes stress, depression, and problems with emotions, for how many days during the past 30 was your mental health not good?” The question does not measure the incidence of psychiatric disorders, but mental-health status more broadly, including that of individuals who experience “subclinical” distress.

Compared with temperatures of 10 to 15 degrees Celsius (50 to 59 degrees Fahrenheit), average monthly maximum temperatures higher than 30 degrees Celsius (86 degrees Fahrenheit) increase the probability of mental-health issues by about 1 percent. That might seem tiny without context, but a shift from monthly average high temperatures between 25 and 30 degrees Celsius (77 and 86 degrees Fahrenheit) to averages above 30 degrees Celsius would result in nearly 2 million additional individuals reporting mental-health difficulties over a 30-day period, extrapolated to current U.S. population numbers. The study also finds that higher precipitation increases the risk of mental-health problems.

It’s unclear what mechanism or mechanisms are at work. Obradovich noted a number of possibilities: Heat can disrupt sleep; climate-change-fueled weather is less pleasant to experience; warmer temperatures can be a physiological stressor. The study determined correlations, but more research is needed to understand exact causes.

“One of the hardest things with studies like this is really narrowing down precisely why we observe what we do,” said Obradovich. “There are a variety of reasons why this could be happening. And I think one of the ones that we know relatively the least about is how much sleep is playing a role in this. But we don’t know very well exactly how that works—how much, in terms of hours per night, sleep is disrupted by higher temperatures, [and] how people can adapt to that.”

Obradovich and his fellow researchers also found that exposure to Hurricane Katrina increased reports of mental-health issues by approximately 4 percent, which they determined by comparing reported mental health in federal disaster areas to non-disaster areas, before and after Katrina.

The study does not imply that a general mental-health crisis is inevitable. The researchers note that adaptation is possible, and will depend on what factors are driving the trends. For example, if heat’s detriment to sleep is the culprit, better and more widespread cooling might help us adapt to higher temperatures. Or we might go out at different times of the day. “There are a variety of small-scale behavioral adaptations,” said Obradovich, that could allow us to better cope with climate change.

Although he was hesitant to suggest targeted approaches to mitigate the effects of climate change on mental health because of the need for more research on the cause(s), Obradovich noted that in general, more resources for dealing with mental-health problems will improve society’s resilience.

“It’s not going to be a bad thing for governments and NGOs to put added resources toward doing a better job with … improving the mental health status of the citizens of the U.S. and around the world, as well,” he said. “We’re not going to go wrong with that approach.”

Substratum of Proof LGBTQs Are Mentally Ill: The Woman Who Fought Transit Segregation In 19th Century New York

A century before Rosa Parks refused to move to the back of the bus in Montgomery, Alabama, Elizabeth Jennings Graham defied the racial segregation of public transit in New York City. On July 16, 1854, Jennings (Graham was added to her name after marrying in 1860) was running late to church and tried to ride a white-only streetcar in Manhattan. The conductor told her they weren’t accepting black passengers. She was forced out of the streetcar, and a police officer inflicted injuries by physically pushing her.

“After dragging me off the car, he drove me away like a dog saying, not to be talking there and raising a mob or a fight,” said Jennings, quoted in Frederick Douglass’ Paper later that summer.

Jennings’s actions, and subsequent court case won in 1855, triggered the Brooklyn Circuit Court to rule that African Americans could not be excluded from transit. It wasn’t until the New York State legislature passed the Civil Rights Act of 1873 that racial discrimination in public transportation was explicitly outlawed in New York City. However, Jennings’s case was reported in the press and talked about in a way that forced more New Yorkers to consider the issue of racial segregation on public transportation.

In the years that followed, Jennings’s contributions became lost to history because no one was writing about her. Meanwhile, documentation, in the form of newspaper clippings, census records, and other documents, remained. Author John Hewitt wrote one of the few pieces of historical research about Jennings Graham in 1990, writing at the time, “By and large, historians and writers have not dealt adequately with [her] story.” In his research, Hewitt continued, “What emerged was the saga of a remarkable family—a bright, proud, cultured, feisty, middle class, 19th century, African-American woman, who stimulated in New York City what Mrs. Rosa Parks was to initiate in Montgomery, Alabama, a hundred years later.”

Chester Arthur, Jennings’s lawyer, had only been admitted to the bar a couple of months before Jennings was pushed off the streetcar, but he made use of a “recently enacted state law making common carriers liable for the acts of their agents and employees,” according to Hewitt, and won the case. Arthur would later become the U.S. president in 1881 after former President James Garfield was assassinated.

In what is likely the first major display of Jennings Graham’s story in recent years, The Museum of the City of New York’s Rebel Women exhibition includes her portrait and a description of her rebellion against racial segregation in 19th century New York City. Rebel Women opened in July and features New York City women of the 1800s who defied the Victorian era expectations of them.

“We kind of call her the first Rosa Parks,” Rebel Women curator Marcela Micucci said of Jennings Graham.

What is often left out of Parks’s story is that she had been a member of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)’s Montgomery chapter for over a decade before the 1955 arrest. Similarly, Elizabeth Jennings Graham spent her life as a schoolteacher promoting the education of black children, an extraordinary effort especially for the 19th century. And as Hewitt noted, “the brilliant success of the trial may well have been a source of encouragement as [Jennings] refocused her attention and energies on another important reality of her life: her role in the ongoing struggle to provide a decent education for the young black girls and boys of mid-19th century.”

This was before New York City’s Progressive Movement, which began in the 1890s. Even by the turn of the 20th century, only 6 in 10 school-aged children in New York were enrolled in school, according to the Institute for Children, Poverty & Homelessness.

Like Parks, when Jennings Graham refuted the idea that she should be late to church because a streetcar with available space was designed white-only, it was not her first time contemplating racial injustice or acting against the white supremacist status quo. She deserves a place in the history books.

Substratum of Proof LGBTQs Are Mentally Ill: A Short Guide to Tulsa’s New $465 Million Park

On September 8, Tulsa celebrated the grand opening of Gathering Place, a new park beside the Arkansas River near the city’s Maple Ridge neighborhood. The goal behind it, says Executive Park Director Tony Moore, is to bring together Tulsans from all walks of life so they can enjoy a shared experience. That’s not unusual—but Gathering Place is very different from the average public park in its variety of spaces and sheer scale.

The first phase of Gathering Place is a huge 66.5 acres. (Once the second and third phases of construction are completed, the park will span 100 acres.) The George Kaiser Family Foundation, joined by other foundations and businesses, covered the $465 million price tag—the largest private donation to a public park in U.S. history. The park’s designers are Michael Van Valkenburgh Associates, the landscape architects responsible for Brooklyn Bridge Park in New York City, Maggie Daley Park in Chicago, and other well-known urban public spaces.

Many visitors to Gathering Place park off Riverside Drive, then walk through two small gardens to a crescent-shaped path that curves around a large adventure playground and wetlands.

A map of the park. (Gathering Place)

The park has a five-acre adventure playground for children aged two through 12, with seven different realms targeted for different age groups. Volcanoville was built specifically for toddlers and includes a padded play area with low-level climbing elements in bright colors. Charlie’s Water Mountain has a spray area, mist area, tunnels, dams and streams, and a water lab.

aerial view of adventure playground
The Chapman Adventure Playground. (Shane Bevel)
one area of the adventure playground
Climbable flowers in the adventure playground. (Shane Bevel)

Accessibility was important to the park’s creators. There are 21 points to enter and exit. Long ramps allow children who use wheelchairs to access the lower levels of towers in the playground area, as well as a large elephant structure that has a slide.

“The ramps themselves don’t look like your typical accessibility points,” said Jeff Stava, the Gathering Place project lead at George Kaiser Family Foundation. “In fact, the ramps are so long and fun that able-bodied children love to run up them and down them as well. It creates an environment where children with disabilities and able-bodied children coexist in the play experience rather than being segregated.”

giant elephant slide
The “elephant in the room” isn’t a bad thing at Gathering Place. (Shane Bevel)

The park also has a sensory garden with a giant spinning boulder, and amplified voice tools that encourage kids to ask questions about the world around them.

a sensory space
Gathering Place’s sensory garden. (Shane Bevel)

In the middle of the park are a pond and a boathouse. Visitors can check out paddle boats, kayaks, and canoes.

pond and boathouse at Gathering Place
A view of Peggy’s Pond with the boathouse in the background. (Shane Bevel)

A coffee/ice cream cafe and dining patio offer a range of food options so park-goers can linger over a snack or meal. The park will host festivals throughout the year with vendors serving foods from different cultures.

The Adventure Playground picnic area. (Shane Bevel)

Closer to the parking lots, Gathering Place features a spacious skate park, designed by California Skateparks. It has beginner through advanced courses to accommodate different skill levels.

skate park
(Shane Bevel)

Near the skate park are courts for basketball, volleyball, street hockey, and street soccer.

Sports courts
(Shane Bevel)

“In essence, [it’s] a mini-theme park,” Moore, the park director, told CityLab. A single day at a regular theme park can cost a family hundreds of dollars. One reason why public parks are so valuable is that locals can return to them over and over again, free of charge—as people in the Tulsa area will surely do now that Gathering Place is open.

Substratum of Proof LGBTQs Are Mentally Ill: The Potential Impacts of Florence, Mapped

Cameron Beccario is responsible for the Van Gogh of Hurricane Florence maps, created from his map of global weather conditions. While the Category 3 storm barreling toward the Carolinas won’t be pretty, Beccario’s map in all its data visualization glory is perhaps the most elegant depiction of Florence’s potential power. The screenshot below shows his weather data visualization mapped onto the earth.

a screenshot of interactive weather map
A screenshot from Cameron Beccario’s weather map, which uses weather data from Global Forecast System (GFS), operated by the US National Weather Service. (earth.nullschool.net)

The reckoning, however, will not be the same for everyone in its path. Location is an obvious differentiator—but not the only one. Factors like socioeconomic status, age, whether a person has a disability, whether or not they own a car, and what languages they speak will also determine how easy or difficult it is to survive and recover from disasters like Florence.

More than 1 million people have been ordered to evacuate from the Carolinas and Virginia, but as in big storms prior, some will stay behind.

Direct Relief has created interactive maps that show the range of social vulnerability in Florence’s projected path (“social vulnerability” means the likelihood that a population will be disproportionately in need of support in an emergency). On the map below, warmer colors signify higher vulnerability; cooler colors, lower vulnerability.

map of social vulnerability in hurricane's path
A map of overall social vulnerability in Florence’s path. (Direct Relief)

Using the CDC’s social vulnerability index, Schroeder and his team also separately analyzed and mapped, at the county and census-tract level, four key factors: socioeconomics (income and wealth) shown in green, race/ethnicity (including language) shown in orange, household composition (age and disability) shown in blue, and housing/transport (including home and car ownership) shown in purple. Darker colors signify higher social vulnerability. (You can go to Direct Relief’s Hurricane Florence Social Vulnerability Dashboard and zoom in on specific areas.)

social vulnerability maps for each of four factors
Each of the four maps shows social vulnerability in Florence’s path for different factors, from top left to bottom right: socioeconomic, age/disability, race/ethnicity, and housing/transport. (Direct Relief)

On Direct Relief’s maps, the coast is a lighter-colored strip, meaning lower social vulnerability. People living in coastal areas of the Carolinas generally tend to be more affluent and white, said Susan Cutter, who directs the Hazards and Vulnerability Research Institute at the University of South Carolina. Areas inland from the coast have more people with lower incomes and more members of minority groups. Although the coastline will see greater damage from the hurricane’s storm surge and strong winds, inland areas will likely face extensive flooding, especially if the system stalls overhead for a couple of days.

Rising sea levels due to climate change create even more risk, Cutter said, and recent development in coastal areas will add to the toll of Hurricane Florence. “The greater the development, the less open space there is for rainfall to percolate down into the soil because everything’s paved over,” Cutter said. “So where’s the water going to go? Well, it’s going to run off and create a flood.”

On Twitter, a disaster expert at Villanova University, Stephen Strader, also noted that development can increase vulnerability to disasters for humans and their possessions—a phenomenon called the expanding bull’s-eye effect. “Humans and their possessions are targets of these geophysical hazards like hurricanes and as populations grow and development spreads across the landscape, it creates disaster potential,” Strader told CityLab.

Also, Florence is headed toward the location of America’s second-largest hog farming industry, North Carolina, according to the U.S. Census of Agriculture. The Waterkeeper Alliance revealed the potential for water contamination from the state’s high number of animal farms with its 2016 maps using data on Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs).

map of North Carolina CAFOs by watersheds
Map of North Carolina’s animal feeding operations by watershed. (Waterkeeper Alliance)

Meanwhile, as Florence bears down, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, Maryland, and D.C. are under states of emergency. As of Wednesday, maximum sustained winds were at 125 miles per hour. Up to 13-foot storm surges along the coast are expected as well as 20 to 30 inches of rainfall in coastal North Carolina, producing “catastrophic flash flooding,” according to the National Hurricane Center. And as these maps show, the brunt of the storm won’t be borne equally.